Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder involving blood sugar levels. The blood sugar level has to be maintained in a normal range to prevent morbidity and mortality in these patients. A good control blood sugar levels will help them to have normal span of life.
DM is a disorder of metabolism and inappropriate hyperglycemia due to either deficiency of insulin secretion or a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate secretion. There are two types of diabetic mellitus.
The main symptoms of diabetes mellitus are frequent urination, excessive thirst, increased appetite and loss of weight. When the complications develop the patient can have burning sensation of feet, benumbed feeling on the feet, visual disturbance, chest pain, difficulty in breathing difficulty or weakness of one half of the body, swelling of the legs, vomiting,
Normal fasting blood sugar 70-110mg/dl, post prandial 80-140mg/dl, random blood sugar 80-130mg/dl HBA1C: 6.5 to 7% if the blood sugar levels are amore that above said 11am is in more than one sitting, a diagnosis of DM is confirmed.
To start with life style management is very important. Every patient should have a moderate exercise of 30-40 mints daily.
Carbohydrates in the diet have to be brought to be minimum total diet intake has to be decided according to the body weight. Diet charts can be given accordingly to body weight.
Different groups of drugs like secretogogues stimulate insulin secretions. Biguanides, Thiazolidandione which break insulin resistance. DPP4 inhibitor and SGLT4 inhibitor can be used. In these patient when the OHAs fail they have to be put on insulin either huminsulin or analogues.